“Crucified between two thieves” (Matt 27:38) – “thief” is too mild a word. The same is true for “Now Barabbas was a robber” (John 18:40) – too mild. Not even “bandit” has enough kick to translate lēstēs. Barabbas and his buddies who were crucified with Jesus would be better described as revolutionaries, guerillas, pirates (the landlubber variety), or (to use a modern term) “terrorists.”
The difference becomes clear when we look at the alternative Greek terms. Kleptēs is the term for a burglar, someone who steals by being sneaky (Matt 6:19-20). Jesus compares his coming to being like a kleptēs in the night (Matt 24:43, Rev 3:3, 16:15). Likewise, the NT compares the day of the Lord to such a thief (1 Thess 5:2-4, 2 Pet 3:10).
Paul’s sin list in 1 Corinthians 6:10 includes not only kleptai, but also harpages. A harpax is a literally a “snatcher,” a mugger, someone who steals openly by force. The verb form is “to snatch,” the same verb Paul uses for the Rapture in 1 Thessalonians 4:17 (harpagēsometha, “we shall be snatched up”).
We might call the lēstēs a harpax on steroids. Today’s ISIS fighters would be an excellent example, who combine robbery, pillaging, and murder with political revolution. Josephus uses lēstēs and its related adjectives and substantives 143 times. He pairs the lēstai together with the stasiōdes (insurrectionists, as in for example Jewish War 5.53). He explicitly describes as lēstai the Sicarii, men who circulated in the 50’s AD with short hidden daggers which they used to assassinate anyone who was not part of the anti-Roman resistance. He also speaks of the rebels who tyrannized Jerusalem through the horrors of 68-70 AD as lēstai. He uses the term lēstrikos polemos for “guerilla warfare” (Jewish War 2.65).
In the parable of the Good Samaritan in Luke 10, the traveler to Jericho is attacked by lēstai. The attackers not only strip him (the robbery component), but also beat him and leave him half-dead. There is no political revolution component (of course, Jesus probably intends the story as fiction), but here it is the gratuitous violence that marks the attackers as lēstai and not simply harpages or “snatchers.”
Two lēstai were crucified with Jesus. Barabbas (John 18:40) would have been the third, if he had not been freed by the Good Friday mob. Barabbas was being held for insurrection and murder (Luke 23:19), not stealing. We must note that neither Jewish nor Roman law prescribed the death penalty for mere theft. These men next to Jesus at Calvary were not being crucified for stealing, but for being violent revolutionaries.
How degrading, to suffer Rome’s most hideous punishment with such dangerous, violent men! Here we have a vivid picture of the depths to which Jesus humbled himself (Phil 2:8), from whence God highly exalted him, and gave him the name at which every knee shall bow. Happy Resurrection Day!
NEXT WEEK: METHUSELAH = “MAN OF VITALITY”
Rev. Tom Hobson, Ph.D., is Assistant Pastor at Bonhomme Presbyterian Church (ECO), Chesterfield, MO, and author of What’s on God’s Sin List for Today?